The Gift of The Nile ~

Nefertiti in my past life ;) LMU Undergrad, ancient art buff and aspiring Egyptologist and curator. Examining and studying the art and architecture of Ancient Egypt and learning about this fascinating culture one post at a time.
Afternoon everyone and have a happy Labor Day! This is the beautiful Golden Key of the Temple of Nefertari (dating to 1264 AD) at Abu Simbel. The temple was carved in the rock by Ramses II and dedicated to Hathor, the goddess of love and beauty, and to his favorite wife Nefertari. The facade is adorned by six statues, four of Ramses II and two of Nefertari. Unusually, the six are the same height, which indicates the esteem in which Nefertari was held. The golden key is in the shape of an ankh. The ankh, being the Egyptian hieroglyph meaning ‘life, is one of the most famous symbols from ancient Egyptian antiquity. There have been many theories of its origin, purpose, and meaning, such as it not just a hieroglyph, but a tool that aided in building the pyramids. This theory suggests the large stones comprising the body of the Great Pyramid (Khufru specifically), were moved and lifted into place using wind and the ankh handled the rope about its extended arms. Theories include the symbol represents the male and female sexual reproductive organs; the ankh was the belt buckle of the goddess Isis; The symbol showed a sandal strap with the loop at the top forming the strap. Other scholars from universities have suggested that all of these interpretations are complicating the symbol and that it simply means the role of the Nile in the Egyptian country; the The oval-round head represents the Nile delta, the vertical mark representing the path of the river and the East and West arms representing the two sides of the country and their unification. There is no surprise that the symbol can be found being held by gods and goddesses in Egyptian tomb and wall art, since they believed strongly in the afterlife. During the Amarna period, the ankh sign was depicted being offered to Akhenaten and Nefertiti by the hands at the end of the rays descending from the sun disk, Aten. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #Egyptians #Key #Ankh #Nefertari #RamsesII #AbuSimbel #Hathor #Temple #Hieroglyph #Symbol #History #Archaeology #Art #ArtHistory

Afternoon everyone and have a happy Labor Day! This is the beautiful Golden Key of the Temple of Nefertari (dating to 1264 AD) at Abu Simbel. The temple was carved in the rock by Ramses II and dedicated to Hathor, the goddess of love and beauty, and to his favorite wife Nefertari. The facade is adorned by six statues, four of Ramses II and two of Nefertari. Unusually, the six are the same height, which indicates the esteem in which Nefertari was held. The golden key is in the shape of an ankh. The ankh, being the Egyptian hieroglyph meaning ‘life, is one of the most famous symbols from ancient Egyptian antiquity. There have been many theories of its origin, purpose, and meaning, such as it not just a hieroglyph, but a tool that aided in building the pyramids. This theory suggests the large stones comprising the body of the Great Pyramid (Khufru specifically), were moved and lifted into place using wind and the ankh handled the rope about its extended arms. Theories include the symbol represents the male and female sexual reproductive organs; the ankh was the belt buckle of the goddess Isis; The symbol showed a sandal strap with the loop at the top forming the strap. Other scholars from universities have suggested that all of these interpretations are complicating the symbol and that it simply means the role of the Nile in the Egyptian country; the The oval-round head represents the Nile delta, the vertical mark representing the path of the river and the East and West arms representing the two sides of the country and their unification. There is no surprise that the symbol can be found being held by gods and goddesses in Egyptian tomb and wall art, since they believed strongly in the afterlife. During the Amarna period, the ankh sign was depicted being offered to Akhenaten and Nefertiti by the hands at the end of the rays descending from the sun disk, Aten. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #Egyptians #Key #Ankh #Nefertari #RamsesII #AbuSimbel #Hathor #Temple #Hieroglyph #Symbol #History #Archaeology #Art #ArtHistory

The Bust of Nefertiti (right) is renowned for being one of the most well known artifacts in the history of art. This sunk relief in a limestone slab (left), dating to 1345 BC, the 18th Dynasty in the New Kingdom, illustrates Queen Nefertiti and a daughter offering to the Aten. Although the relief belongs to the early phase of Amarna art,  the bust to its later stage. Found in El-Amarna, the almost ‘grotesque’ face of Nefertiti on this relief broken from a column also belongs to the person represented in the famous bust. This is true of their profile where the front of the crown continues as a straight line of the forehead and then, after only a very slight bulge and dip, as the nose. On the relief, the queen’s nose is very long and the nostrils are emphasized; the lips are so huge that the upper one almost touches the nose; the hatchet chin is sharp and haggard. The queen’s sexuality is noticeably emphasized. On Nefertiti’s bust, the nose is still relatively large but not excessively so; the lips are small and set well apart from the nose; the chin is still quite sharp but delicate. Nowadays, one would congratulate the plastic surgeon but in Amarna art the new look was achieved by the artist. If on disregards the crown and the body from the neck down, the face of the queen on the relief is uncannily similar to the early representations of Akhenaten and the artist probably deliberately set out to achieve such an impression. The famous bust of Nefertit resides in Agyptisches Museum in Berlin and the limestone relief is in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #Queen #Nefertiti #Amarna #BustOfNefertiti #NewKingdom #Statue #Museum #EgyptianMuseum #AshmoleanMuseum #BerlinMuseum #History #ArtHistory #Art #Architecture

The Bust of Nefertiti (right) is renowned for being one of the most well known artifacts in the history of art. This sunk relief in a limestone slab (left), dating to 1345 BC, the 18th Dynasty in the New Kingdom, illustrates Queen Nefertiti and a daughter offering to the Aten. Although the relief belongs to the early phase of Amarna art, the bust to its later stage. Found in El-Amarna, the almost ‘grotesque’ face of Nefertiti on this relief broken from a column also belongs to the person represented in the famous bust. This is true of their profile where the front of the crown continues as a straight line of the forehead and then, after only a very slight bulge and dip, as the nose. On the relief, the queen’s nose is very long and the nostrils are emphasized; the lips are so huge that the upper one almost touches the nose; the hatchet chin is sharp and haggard. The queen’s sexuality is noticeably emphasized. On Nefertiti’s bust, the nose is still relatively large but not excessively so; the lips are small and set well apart from the nose; the chin is still quite sharp but delicate. Nowadays, one would congratulate the plastic surgeon but in Amarna art the new look was achieved by the artist. If on disregards the crown and the body from the neck down, the face of the queen on the relief is uncannily similar to the early representations of Akhenaten and the artist probably deliberately set out to achieve such an impression. The famous bust of Nefertit resides in Agyptisches Museum in Berlin and the limestone relief is in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #Queen #Nefertiti #Amarna #BustOfNefertiti #NewKingdom #Statue #Museum #EgyptianMuseum #AshmoleanMuseum #BerlinMuseum #History #ArtHistory #Art #Architecture

Tomb and temple art were directly dependent on the prevailing political and economic situation in the country because they  were made to order. After the sometimes charming but hesitant efforts during the First Intermediate period, painting reached a remarkably high standard during the 12th dynasty. The reasons for it were historical; The families of local princes in Middle and northern Upper Egypt were, probably in return for their acceptance of the Theban overlord, able to retain a considerable degree of self-govenrment and they had large rock-cut tombs made as their burial places. The main centres of artistic excellence were Qaw-el-Kebir, Asyut, Meir, Deir el Bersha and Beni Hasan. The decoration on tombs walls may have been carved in relief or just painted. The birds here, painted in the tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan are only a small detail of a scene showing the tomb owner netting fowl in a clap net. The theme, birds in an acacia tree, is traditional and it is unlikely that Khnumhotep ever indulged in this activity. It is equally improbable that he ever attempted to spear fish in the marshes or hunt wild fowl with a throw stick, as suggested by the scenes flanking the netting of fowl. But the details of this fictitious event are completely naturalistic and accurately observed. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #AncientEgyptians #Birds #Nature #Tomb #Relief #Painting #History #Art #ArtHistory #Archaeology #BeniHasan #AncientHistory

Tomb and temple art were directly dependent on the prevailing political and economic situation in the country because they were made to order. After the sometimes charming but hesitant efforts during the First Intermediate period, painting reached a remarkably high standard during the 12th dynasty. The reasons for it were historical; The families of local princes in Middle and northern Upper Egypt were, probably in return for their acceptance of the Theban overlord, able to retain a considerable degree of self-govenrment and they had large rock-cut tombs made as their burial places. The main centres of artistic excellence were Qaw-el-Kebir, Asyut, Meir, Deir el Bersha and Beni Hasan. The decoration on tombs walls may have been carved in relief or just painted. The birds here, painted in the tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan are only a small detail of a scene showing the tomb owner netting fowl in a clap net. The theme, birds in an acacia tree, is traditional and it is unlikely that Khnumhotep ever indulged in this activity. It is equally improbable that he ever attempted to spear fish in the marshes or hunt wild fowl with a throw stick, as suggested by the scenes flanking the netting of fowl. But the details of this fictitious event are completely naturalistic and accurately observed. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #AncientEgyptians #Birds #Nature #Tomb #Relief #Painting #History #Art #ArtHistory #Archaeology #BeniHasan #AncientHistory

This is a Counterpoise of a Pectoral of Tutankhamun, dating to the New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. Found in King Tut’s tomb, this beautiful piece is made of gold, rock and lapus lazuli. The centerpiece holds the Eye of Horus, one of the most popular hieroglyphs admired from the Ancient Egyptian culture, a wedjat that means “healthy” or “royal power”. Since the beginning of the Egyptian civilization, the falcon god Horus’ eyes were seen as the sun (right eye) and the moon (left eye); Horus created the the day and the night by opening one eye and closing the other. The Eye of Horus may be visually appealing to popular culture because it is in the shape of a human eye, and of course anything familial to us is inviting. The hieroglyph is carved or drawn in the shape of a human above a marking that is a stylized spiral “tear” line (this “tear” refers to the belief that mankind was created from the god Re’s tears). The symbol is seen as “royal power” due to the fact that it has been a sacred hieroglyph and design of the elite’s jewelry. An example can be seen in the bracelets that were found in King Tutankhamen’s tomb, which had these wedjets and scarabs, the hieroglyph for ‘Becoming” or One who breathed life into the universe, inscribed within the designs. The wedjets were also seen in sacred tomb offerings adorning tables with bounties of food and drink, symbolizing not only the good health and protection to the elite buried, but also illustrating the necessities traveling with the dead in the prominent afterlife. This symbol isn’t just an aesthetically pleasing makeup trick for women to elongate their eyes, it meant something much more to the ancient Egyptians. Not only their god Horus, but also the symbol of positivity in their culture and civilization. This pectoral can be found at the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities in Cairo! #Egypt #AncientEgypt #Egyptology #Horus #Eye #Hieroglyph #Symbol #Tear #Re #Gods #Mythology #Ritual #Religion #KingTut #Tutankhamun #Wedjets #BritishMuseum #History #Archaeology #Art #ArtHistory

This is a Counterpoise of a Pectoral of Tutankhamun, dating to the New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. Found in King Tut’s tomb, this beautiful piece is made of gold, rock and lapus lazuli. The centerpiece holds the Eye of Horus, one of the most popular hieroglyphs admired from the Ancient Egyptian culture, a wedjat that means “healthy” or “royal power”. Since the beginning of the Egyptian civilization, the falcon god Horus’ eyes were seen as the sun (right eye) and the moon (left eye); Horus created the the day and the night by opening one eye and closing the other. The Eye of Horus may be visually appealing to popular culture because it is in the shape of a human eye, and of course anything familial to us is inviting. The hieroglyph is carved or drawn in the shape of a human above a marking that is a stylized spiral “tear” line (this “tear” refers to the belief that mankind was created from the god Re’s tears). The symbol is seen as “royal power” due to the fact that it has been a sacred hieroglyph and design of the elite’s jewelry. An example can be seen in the bracelets that were found in King Tutankhamen’s tomb, which had these wedjets and scarabs, the hieroglyph for ‘Becoming” or One who breathed life into the universe, inscribed within the designs. The wedjets were also seen in sacred tomb offerings adorning tables with bounties of food and drink, symbolizing not only the good health and protection to the elite buried, but also illustrating the necessities traveling with the dead in the prominent afterlife. This symbol isn’t just an aesthetically pleasing makeup trick for women to elongate their eyes, it meant something much more to the ancient Egyptians. Not only their god Horus, but also the symbol of positivity in their culture and civilization. This pectoral can be found at the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities in Cairo! #Egypt #AncientEgypt #Egyptology #Horus #Eye #Hieroglyph #Symbol #Tear #Re #Gods #Mythology #Ritual #Religion #KingTut #Tutankhamun #Wedjets #BritishMuseum #History #Archaeology #Art #ArtHistory

Good morning one and all and have a terrific Thursday! May it be exciting and breathtaking as this scene from Giza!! #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Pyramid #Giza #Sun #Clouds #Sky #Light #Bright #Morning #GoodMorning :)

Good morning one and all and have a terrific Thursday! May it be exciting and breathtaking as this scene from Giza!! #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Pyramid #Giza #Sun #Clouds #Sky #Light #Bright #Morning #GoodMorning :)

Batman and Robin versus the mummy! But luckily this mummy had a tasty distraction creating the perfect opportunity for the dynamic duo’s getaway :) #Egyptomania #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Mummy #Batman #Robin #DCUniverse #Classic #Comics #Twinkies #Advertisement #RIPTwinkies

Batman and Robin versus the mummy! But luckily this mummy had a tasty distraction creating the perfect opportunity for the dynamic duo’s getaway :) #Egyptomania #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Mummy #Batman #Robin #DCUniverse #Classic #Comics #Twinkies #Advertisement #RIPTwinkies

This sandstone, openwork low relief window piece is highly original in not only the blending Egyptian tradition with Graeco-Roman and Christian symbolism, but also portraying Egyptian in such a manner. This fragment of a window, dating to the 4th Century A.D, depicts the falcon god Horus on horseback, stabbing his spear into a crocodile, the symbol of the god Setekh, or commonly used name Seth. Egyptian deities were never portrayed on horseback, but due to the mixture of cultures it is evident why this is the case; Horus is dressed like a Roman soldier, portrayed in full profile, on a horse which is also in profile with its head turned full face. The falcon god of the sky is sitting on a saddle attached by a bellyband to his richly appointed mount. With a spear in his right hand, controlling the horse with his left, he is about to spear the crocodile who is slumped and hunched down under the mighty steed and the calmness of Horus. According to Egyptian mythology, the god Setekh (Seth) murdered his brother Osiris. Horus, the son of Osiris, avenged his father’s death by killing Setekh. The scene defines the battle between Good (overcoming) evil, which was a major theme in Christianity; the horseman killing the evil with a spear was a common motif, the most repetitive figure was that of St. George, a 3rd Century Christian warrior martyr. You can see the format similarities from the depiction of St. George as a horseman spearing a crocodile from a 17th century Ethiopian manuscript, which is a part of a larger manuscript of the Four Gospels housed in the British Library in London. Even with the Graeco-Roman and Christian symbolism, the Egyptian mythology still withstands. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #WindowArt #GraeoRoman #Christian #Christianity #StGeorge #Horus #Horseman #Horse #Crocodile #Seth #Setekh #Symbolism #Manuscript #History #Archaeology #Artifact #Art #ArtHistory #Museum #Louvre #Library #London

This sandstone, openwork low relief window piece is highly original in not only the blending Egyptian tradition with Graeco-Roman and Christian symbolism, but also portraying Egyptian in such a manner. This fragment of a window, dating to the 4th Century A.D, depicts the falcon god Horus on horseback, stabbing his spear into a crocodile, the symbol of the god Setekh, or commonly used name Seth. Egyptian deities were never portrayed on horseback, but due to the mixture of cultures it is evident why this is the case; Horus is dressed like a Roman soldier, portrayed in full profile, on a horse which is also in profile with its head turned full face. The falcon god of the sky is sitting on a saddle attached by a bellyband to his richly appointed mount. With a spear in his right hand, controlling the horse with his left, he is about to spear the crocodile who is slumped and hunched down under the mighty steed and the calmness of Horus. According to Egyptian mythology, the god Setekh (Seth) murdered his brother Osiris. Horus, the son of Osiris, avenged his father’s death by killing Setekh. The scene defines the battle between Good (overcoming) evil, which was a major theme in Christianity; the horseman killing the evil with a spear was a common motif, the most repetitive figure was that of St. George, a 3rd Century Christian warrior martyr. You can see the format similarities from the depiction of St. George as a horseman spearing a crocodile from a 17th century Ethiopian manuscript, which is a part of a larger manuscript of the Four Gospels housed in the British Library in London. Even with the Graeco-Roman and Christian symbolism, the Egyptian mythology still withstands. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #WindowArt #GraeoRoman #Christian #Christianity #StGeorge #Horus #Horseman #Horse #Crocodile #Seth #Setekh #Symbolism #Manuscript #History #Archaeology #Artifact #Art #ArtHistory #Museum #Louvre #Library #London

Cosmetic boxes are not a modern invention. They date back all the way to ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian toiletry items began in the Predynastic Period with ivory cosmetic articles, such as bone, stone, or even pottery. Ivory combs and kohl spoons were among the first. Kohl is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding galena (lead sulfide) and other ingredients, to darken the eyes and was used as a mascara type for the eyelashes. The desert sun or Nile floodwaters during inundation produced a need for facial-eye protection, using ‘eyepaint’ or eyeliner, when working in the flooded lands; theoretically it was also used by males. The Kohl spoon was designed in many shapes, the most common being the ankh symbol, ducks, and lotus flowers, all symbolizing life and rejuvenation. This Cosmetic box of the Cupbearer Kemeni dates to the Middle Kingdom (12th Dynasty) during the reign of Amenemhat IV (a. 1814 - 1805 BC). Found in Upper Egypt of Thebes in the Tomb of Reniseneb, this Cedar box with ebony and ivory veneer and silver mounting, shows decoration on the front illustrating Kemeni presenting an ointment to Amenemhat IV. The inlaid inscription around the top of the lid contains the names of the king on the front and reads, from the front right to the back: “A royal offering of (the crocodile god) Sobek, lord of the wetlands, giving a good burial and being led to a state of honor, to the ka (life force) of the secretary of the king’s breakfast in preparing the tables of the Lord of the Two Lands, roomkeeper and cupbearer Kemeni possessor of honor and justified.” In the inscription from the front to the left, Kemeni is called “born by Any.” The box contains a mirror and four stone ointment jars, which were found around the box in the vicinity. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #Cosmetic #Box #Kohl #Makeup #EyeLiner #Mascara #Mirror #Ointment #Tomb #Museum #MET #History #Art #Archaeology #ArtHistory #Artifacts

Cosmetic boxes are not a modern invention. They date back all the way to ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian toiletry items began in the Predynastic Period with ivory cosmetic articles, such as bone, stone, or even pottery. Ivory combs and kohl spoons were among the first. Kohl is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding galena (lead sulfide) and other ingredients, to darken the eyes and was used as a mascara type for the eyelashes. The desert sun or Nile floodwaters during inundation produced a need for facial-eye protection, using ‘eyepaint’ or eyeliner, when working in the flooded lands; theoretically it was also used by males. The Kohl spoon was designed in many shapes, the most common being the ankh symbol, ducks, and lotus flowers, all symbolizing life and rejuvenation. This Cosmetic box of the Cupbearer Kemeni dates to the Middle Kingdom (12th Dynasty) during the reign of Amenemhat IV (a. 1814 - 1805 BC). Found in Upper Egypt of Thebes in the Tomb of Reniseneb, this Cedar box with ebony and ivory veneer and silver mounting, shows decoration on the front illustrating Kemeni presenting an ointment to Amenemhat IV. The inlaid inscription around the top of the lid contains the names of the king on the front and reads, from the front right to the back: “A royal offering of (the crocodile god) Sobek, lord of the wetlands, giving a good burial and being led to a state of honor, to the ka (life force) of the secretary of the king’s breakfast in preparing the tables of the Lord of the Two Lands, roomkeeper and cupbearer Kemeni possessor of honor and justified.” In the inscription from the front to the left, Kemeni is called “born by Any.” The box contains a mirror and four stone ointment jars, which were found around the box in the vicinity. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Egyptology #Cosmetic #Box #Kohl #Makeup #EyeLiner #Mascara #Mirror #Ointment #Tomb #Museum #MET #History #Art #Archaeology #ArtHistory #Artifacts

The image of the scarab is almost synonymous with Ancient Egypt. No surprise that the Sun-god creator, Khepri, is in the form of the scarab beetle. This insect choice demonstrates the Egyptian eye for nature and unique understanding for the universe as a whole. Khepri’s iconography is the scarab pushing the sun disk in the sky up from the Underworld to make its journey. This is in comparison to the scarab’s natural activity of rolling balls of dirt across the ground: this method was translated into an explanation of the sun’s circuit. From the Middle Kingdom on the representation of Khepri as the scarab occurred in a three-dimensional form carved as the backing of seals. These scarabs connected the wearer with the sun-god. Kings would use the undersides of large scarabs to commemorate specific events. The scarab could form the bezel of a ring or be a part of a necklace or bracelet. Here is a wonderful example of a bracelet of King Tutankhamun with the scarab. This piece of jewelry, dating from the New Kingdom (18th Dynasty) from the area of the Valley of the Kings, is a rigid gold bracelet, composed of two semicircles joined together by a hinge on one side and a clasp on the other. The central plaque bears a cloisonne scarab inlaid with lapis lazuli. The bracelet itself is also inlaid with carnelian, lapis lazuli, and colored glass. The scarab was one of the most popular motifs in ancient Egyptian jewelry. Seldom to see examples of hard-stone statues of these insects, it is thought that in each of the major temples there possessed a colossal statue based on a plinth, which symbolized architecturally the concept that the temple was the site where the sun-god first emerged to the begin the creation of the cosmos. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Scarab #Khepri #Deity #God #Mythology #SunGod #Creator #Jewelry #Tutankhamun #Tomb #Bracelet #Gold #LapisLazuli #Glass #History #Art #ArtHistory #Archaeology #Museum #Cairo

The image of the scarab is almost synonymous with Ancient Egypt. No surprise that the Sun-god creator, Khepri, is in the form of the scarab beetle. This insect choice demonstrates the Egyptian eye for nature and unique understanding for the universe as a whole. Khepri’s iconography is the scarab pushing the sun disk in the sky up from the Underworld to make its journey. This is in comparison to the scarab’s natural activity of rolling balls of dirt across the ground: this method was translated into an explanation of the sun’s circuit. From the Middle Kingdom on the representation of Khepri as the scarab occurred in a three-dimensional form carved as the backing of seals. These scarabs connected the wearer with the sun-god. Kings would use the undersides of large scarabs to commemorate specific events. The scarab could form the bezel of a ring or be a part of a necklace or bracelet. Here is a wonderful example of a bracelet of King Tutankhamun with the scarab. This piece of jewelry, dating from the New Kingdom (18th Dynasty) from the area of the Valley of the Kings, is a rigid gold bracelet, composed of two semicircles joined together by a hinge on one side and a clasp on the other. The central plaque bears a cloisonne scarab inlaid with lapis lazuli. The bracelet itself is also inlaid with carnelian, lapis lazuli, and colored glass. The scarab was one of the most popular motifs in ancient Egyptian jewelry. Seldom to see examples of hard-stone statues of these insects, it is thought that in each of the major temples there possessed a colossal statue based on a plinth, which symbolized architecturally the concept that the temple was the site where the sun-god first emerged to the begin the creation of the cosmos. #AncientEgypt #Egypt #Egyptian #Scarab #Khepri #Deity #God #Mythology #SunGod #Creator #Jewelry #Tutankhamun #Tomb #Bracelet #Gold #LapisLazuli #Glass #History #Art #ArtHistory #Archaeology #Museum #Cairo

This is a pendant of a falcon with a Ram’s head, dating to the New Kingdom (19th Dynasty), during the reign of Ramesses II, who can be seen in statue form in the previous post. This pendant was found in Saqqara from the tomb of the Apis that dies in the 26th year of Ramesses II’s reign. This site was excavated from 1851 to 1853. The pendant is rare not just in the quality of the material but also the representation of the deity. The pendant is made from gold with 99.5 percent purity, which is extremely rare in Egyptian jewelry. Composed of 300 cloisons, this artwork has inlays of turquoise, lapis-lazuli, and carnelian, and the craftsmanship is detailed and defined. The New Kingdom pendant shows a composite figure of a deity, almost certainly a form of the sun god; The falcon is depicted with its wings outstretched and legs spread in a position ill-suited to flight, holding shen signs in its claws. The head is that of a ram’s with horizontal horns. The composite figure appears in The Book of Caverns, a royal funerary text that appears during the Ramesside period. The final scene with this deity describes the nocturnal transformations of the sun god in the underworld until the morning when the sun rises to start a new day. In the tomb of Twosre, the sun at the end of this transformation takes the shape of a ram headed falcon with wings and legs outstretched, as displayed in this pendant. This pendent is a representation of rebirth for the deceased, even in this case, a dead bull and not a dead person. Because of this fact, you can see that the Apis bull was an important animal in Egyptian mythology. #AncientEgypt #Egyptian #Egypt #Pendant #Falcon #Ram #Ramesses #Saqqara #Gold #Turquoise #LapisLazuli #Deity #BookofCaverns #Tomb #ApisBull #History #Museum #Louvre #France #History #Art #ArtHistory #Archaeology

This is a pendant of a falcon with a Ram’s head, dating to the New Kingdom (19th Dynasty), during the reign of Ramesses II, who can be seen in statue form in the previous post. This pendant was found in Saqqara from the tomb of the Apis that dies in the 26th year of Ramesses II’s reign. This site was excavated from 1851 to 1853. The pendant is rare not just in the quality of the material but also the representation of the deity. The pendant is made from gold with 99.5 percent purity, which is extremely rare in Egyptian jewelry. Composed of 300 cloisons, this artwork has inlays of turquoise, lapis-lazuli, and carnelian, and the craftsmanship is detailed and defined. The New Kingdom pendant shows a composite figure of a deity, almost certainly a form of the sun god; The falcon is depicted with its wings outstretched and legs spread in a position ill-suited to flight, holding shen signs in its claws. The head is that of a ram’s with horizontal horns. The composite figure appears in The Book of Caverns, a royal funerary text that appears during the Ramesside period. The final scene with this deity describes the nocturnal transformations of the sun god in the underworld until the morning when the sun rises to start a new day. In the tomb of Twosre, the sun at the end of this transformation takes the shape of a ram headed falcon with wings and legs outstretched, as displayed in this pendant. This pendent is a representation of rebirth for the deceased, even in this case, a dead bull and not a dead person. Because of this fact, you can see that the Apis bull was an important animal in Egyptian mythology. #AncientEgypt #Egyptian #Egypt #Pendant #Falcon #Ram #Ramesses #Saqqara #Gold #Turquoise #LapisLazuli #Deity #BookofCaverns #Tomb #ApisBull #History #Museum #Louvre #France #History #Art #ArtHistory #Archaeology